D. W., Bell, S. H., & Carey, K. T. (1999). Designing Preschool
Interventions: A practitioner's guide. New York: Guilford.
This is a textbook that appears appropriate
for upper level undergraduate and graduate level instruction.
It is written in a scholarly manner that would likely make
it difficult for laypersons. Two chapters in particular--Chapter
4, Designing Effective Interventions and Chapter 6, Developing
New Behaviors and Modifying Existing Behaviors--apply to naturalistic
interventions. They provide overviews of the chapter themes,
identifying the available research based practices. While
offering some examples, the chapters are more an overview
than an in-depth examination of any particular intervention.
The bibliography, however, is an excellent resource for articles
and books addressing both naturalistic interventions in particular
and preschool interventions in general.
W., Carey, K. T., & Hall, J. D. (1993). Naturalistic intervention
design for young children: Foundations, rationales and strategies.
Topics in Early Childhood Special Education,13(4),
Establishes the theoretical framework for
understanding naturalistic intervention. Defines naturalistic
intervention and establishes the broader contexts in which
in functions (Social Cognitive Theory, Ecobehavioral Analysis,
Naturalistic Inquiry). Gives a very broad overview of the
steps involved in developing naturalistic interventions. Works
best as a foundation article. Less effective as a practical
Bloch, J. S.
& Seitz, M. (1989). Parents as assessors of Children:
A collaborative approach to helping. Social Work in Education,
Describes an assessment procedure intended
to support the IEP/IFP process. It advocates incorporation
of parents into the assessment process and describes an assessment
tool developed by the first author that facilitates this process.
Although written mostly for the social worker, it could be
helpful to educators and parents in laying the groundwork
for goal-setting and the use of naturalistic interventions
to achieve those goals.
Dunst, C. J.,
Hamby, D, Trivette, C. M., Raab, M. & Bruder, M. B. (2000).
Everyday family and community live and children's naturally
occurring learning opportunities. Journal of Early Intervention,
Reports the results of national surveys intended
to identify the sources of naturally occurring learning opportunities
for young children with disabilities. One survey asked primary
caregivers to rate items on a list of possible family activities
for frequency of occurrence in their family. One survey asked
primary caregivers to rate items on a list of possible community
activities for frequency of occurrence in their family. Results
of these surveys were used to confirm the presence of 11 family
activity categories and 11 community activity categories.
The authors believe that these categories are a better indicator
of natural learning environments than are specific place labels
(home, school, etc.) or specific activity labels (game-time,
mealtime, etc.). By attending to the identified activity categories,
service providers can better plan appropriate learning situations
and can better take advantage of spontaneous learning situations.
This article could be an asset for IEP and IFP planners as
they attempt to develop appropriate helping strategies for
children with disabilities and their families.
B. & Kaiser, A. P. (1996). Siblings' use of milieu teaching
at home. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 16(2),
Evaluates the abilities of older siblings
to utilize milieu teaching in the home. Studied three sibling
pairs. Found that all three older siblings were able to learn
simple milieu teaching techniques (modeling and mand modeling)
and appropriately apply them during interactions with younger
disabled siblings. 2 out of 3 sibling pairs showed generalization
to another setting. Use of interventions by the older siblings
was also maintained over time. Other benefits included improved
overall quality of interactions. The authors suggest that
siblings should not attempt to teach new or emerging skills,
but would better help by supporting those skills as they are
taught by adults. This article supports the practice of involving
all family members in the intervention process.
Hester, P. P.,
Kaiser, A. P., Alpert, Cathy, L., & Whiteman, B. (1996).
The generalized effects of training trainers to teach parents
to implement milieu teaching. Journal of Early Intervention,
Provides research evidence that Naturalistic
Interventions (NI) can be taught to trainers and to parents
and maintained after training is concluded. Describes a research
study in which professionals-in-training learned NI strategies
and then taught those strategies to parents. Although NI strategies
were present evident after the training phase concluded, they
did not occur as frequently as during training. This suggests
that some form of follow-up or refresher training might be
called for if NI skills are to be maintained and generalized
to other settings. This is a research intensive article. Step-by-step
directions for training are not included. This information
may be available, however, from the authors.
& McDonnell, A. P. (1999). Teacher-mediated facilitation of
engagement by children with developmental delays in inclusive
preschools. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 19(4),
This article presents research into the effectiveness
of naturalistic interventions as a means of increasing children's
engagement in activities and social interactions. The authors
found that naturalistic interventions with children with developmental
delays in inclusive classrooms increased the children's frequency
and duration of engagement (with others and with appropriate
activities). Secondary to their focus, they also found that
children made increased progress in achieving IEP objectives.
They surveyed the teachers involved in this study and found
that teachers although teachers believed naturalistic interventions
would disrupt the classroom, they also believe the level of
disruption would be acceptable in return for the gains made
by the children. Parents of the children were also generally
favorable toward use of naturalistic interventions in the
The authors provide a detailed description
of their training procedures and their strategies for incorporating
naturalistic interventions. This makes the article a helpful
resource for others who would like to incorporate naturalistic
interventions in their classrooms. They also provide a summary
of the rating scale they used to evaluate teacher effectiveness
in applying naturalistic interventions. This scale might be
useful for others who wish to conduct research in this area,
evaluate preprofessional students, evaluate professionals
seeking continuing education, or evaluate effective classroom
practices. This is a well-written article with a great amount
McGee, G. G.,
Morrier, M. J., & Daly, T. (1999). An incidental teaching
approach to early intervention for toddlers with autism. Journal
of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 24(3),
This article describes a comprehensive early
intervention model for children with autism. It uses both
center-based and home-based intervention. The article also
does a good job of describing incidental teaching and providing
examples of its use. It offers six tenets of effective intervention
for children with autism. It also describes essential goals
for an intervention program. The authors indicate that their
model is available for replication either fully or partially.
This is a good article for providing an overview of incidental
teaching and for describing an effective early intervention
model. It reads well and would be appropriate for persons
interested in undergraduate and graduate instruction, program
development, and program evaluation. Parents would also find
it useful as a basis for comparison to their child's early
intervention program and as an information source about incidental
K., Schwartz, I. S., & Swinth, Y. (1994). Physical and occupational
therapists in naturalistic early childhood settings: Challenges
and strategies for training. Topics in Early Childhood Special
Education, 14(3), 333-349.
Addresses the changes in provision of services
by physical and occupational therapists over the last 20 years.
Points out that interventions have moved from intensive, one-to-one,
medical models to inclusive, transdisciplinary models provided
in classrooms and homes. Identified five components of therapy
that are compatible with naturalistic settings. Argues for
changes in emphasis of preservice and inservice training to
include consultation, collaboration, and role-releasing skills.
This would be a good article to initiate discussion among
physical and occupational therapists about their roles in
naturalistic interventions. It would also be good for other
disciplines in generating discussion how their roles have
changed over the last 20 years. Does not address any specific
naturalistic intervention techniques but rather addresses
need for additional skills among physical and occupational